Tipsa en vän om en artikel

Swedish physicists on the E-cat:
“It’s a nuclear reaction”

In a detailed report, two Swedish physicists exclude chemical reactions as the energy source in the Italian ‘energy catalyzer’. The two physicists recently supervised a new test of the device in Bologna, Italy.

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

(Click on the images). Three E-cats without insulation and one insulated. Text in blue indicates hydrogen inlet, main heater, auxiliary heater and water inlet. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

Close view of the main resistor surrounding the copper tube, which in turn surrounds the steel reactor. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

Vertcal part of the E-cat with outlet for hot water through a black rubber hose. The insulation and the lead shielding can also be seen in the picture. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

Temperature of the hot water at the outlet. At 60 degrees centigrade the temperature increase is escalated, although the electric power fed to to the device is constant. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

(Swedish version here, Italian translation here).

“In some way a new kind of physics is taking place. It’s enigmatic, but probably no new laws of nature are involved. We believe it is possible to explain the process with known laws of nature,” said Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics and a lecturer at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and chairman member of the board (chairman until April 2) of the Swedish Skeptics Society.

Essén and Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University Sven Kullander, also chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee, both participated on 29 March as observers at a new trial in Bologna of the so-called ‘energy catalyzer’, which could be based on cold fusion, or LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

Participants included the inventor of the device, Andrea Rossi, his scientific advisor Professor Sergio Focardi, and physicists Dr. David Bianchini and Dr. Giuseppe Levi from Bologna University who both supervised the first public demonstration of the E-cat on 14 January 2011 in Bologna, Italy.

The new trial was conducted in much the same way as the trial in January, and lasted for nearly six hours. According to observations by Kullander and Essén, a total energy of about 25 kWh was generated.

In a detailed report (download here), they write:

“Any chemical process should be ruled out for producing 25 kWh from whatever is in a 50 cubic centimeter container. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production.”

The power output was estimated to about 4.4 kW. It’s barely half the power compared with the two previous documented experiments in January and February 2011, because the trial was made with a new and smaller version of the energy catalyzer.

The new trial was the first officially documented with the smaller version which, according to Rossi, is more stable.

“With the smaller version we avoid the power peaks that occurred at ignition and switching off,” Andrea Rossi told Ny Teknik.

He also stated that the smaller version will be used for the planned installation of about one megawatt for the pilot customer Defkalion Green Technologies in Greece.

According to Rossi, a total of 300 reactors connected in series and parallel, will be used in the installation. Originally 100 reactors of the version that delivered 10 kW of power during earlier trials, were supposedly planned for the one-megawatt installation. Rossi still expects the inauguration to take place in October 2011.

At the trial in Bologna, Kullander and Essén could investigate the energy catalyzer with the surrounding insulation and the lead shielding stripped away. The exterior design is described in their report.

The reactor itself, which is loaded with the nickel powder and secret catalysts pressurized with hydrogen, has an estimated volume of 50 cubic centimeters (3.2 cubic inches). The reactor is made of stainless steel.

A copper tube surrounds the steel reactor. The water to be heated flows between the steel and the copper. In operation, the construction is also surrounded by insulation and a lead shielding with a thickness of approximately two centimeters (0.8 inches).

Before starting, Kullander and Essén calibrated the water flow and estimated it at 6.5 kg per hour. The power required to heat the flowing water from 18 degrees and convert it completely into steam was calculated to 4.7 kW.

They also filled the reactor with hydrogen at a pressure of about 25 bars. The reactor was according to Rossi loaded with 50 grams of nickel powder.

As in previous trials the process was ‘ignited’ with an electrical resistance. Input power was 330 watts, of which about 30 watts were required to operate the electronics.

A phenomenon that Kullander and Essén noted was that the curve for the water temperature at the output showed a steady increase up to about 60 degrees centigrade, after which the increase escalated.

“The curve then became steeper, it clearly had a new derivative. At the same time there was no increase in power consumption, it rather decreased when it got warmer,” said Essén.

In their report they note that it took nine minutes to go from 20 to 60 degrees centigrade, which corresponds to the heating from the input electrical power. Going from 60 to 97.5 degrees centigrade, by contrast, just took four minutes.

Throughout the experiment Kullander and Essén had the opportunity to examine the equipment.

“We checked everything that could be checked, and we could walk around freely and have a look at most of the equipment,” said Essén.

“We looked specifically into the big control unit (with electronics) and it contains mostly rectifiers and passive components – there was nothing of interest in it,” said Kullander, which is in line of what Dr. Levi previously noted.

Kullander and Essén had their first contact with Rossi in mid February, at the time of a discussion of the physics in the energy catalyzer, organized by Ny Teknik. After getting answers from Rossi to several questions, they expressed a cautiously optimistic opinion about the technology.

At a first meeting with Rossi at the end of February they were given access to a sample of the pure nickel powder, intended for use in the energy catalyzer, and another sample of nickel powder which, according to Rossi, had been used in the reactor for 2.5 months.

Their analyses showed that the pure powder consists of essentially pure nickel, while the used powder contains several other substances, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron.

“Provided that copper is not one of the additives used as catalyst, the copper isotopes 63 and 65 can only have been formed during the process. Their presence is therefore a proof that nuclear reactions took place in the process,” Kullander said (see further details below).

The meeting in February in turn led to their involvement in the new trial in Bologna.

“My belief that there is an energy development far beyond what one would expect has been strengthened significantly as I have had the opportunity to see the process for myself and perform measurements,” said Kullander.

“Everything that we’ve found so far fits together. There is nothing that seems to be strange. All people seem to be honest and competent,” Essén added.

In line of what they expressed during the discussion in February, they believe that the physics of the energy catalyzer may possibly be explained by a combination of atomic, molecular, nuclear and plasma physics. At the same time they are skeptical of detailed and hypothetical theories suggested at this stage, and stressed instead the need for more data.

They describe that Focardi and Levi have the same approach, and support their viewpoint.

Focardi, who has been working with Rossi during the development of the energy catalyzer, is Emeritus Professor at the University of Bologna, while Levi will now be responsible for researching the energy catalyzer at the Physics Department of Bologna University, commissioned by Rossi, who pays 500,000 Euro according to an agreement between his company Leonardo Corporation and the university.

Kullander and Essén are not involved in this project.

During their visit to Bologna they met with the Rector of the Bologna University, Professor Ivano Dionigi, and had a discussion with him, Rossi, Focardi, Levi and Bianchini on the project. According to Kullander and Levi, future collaborative research is possible.

- - - -

The used powder contains
ten percent copper

Analyses of the nickel powder used in Rossi’s energy catalyzer show that a large amount of copper is formed. Sven Kullander considers this to be evidence of a nuclear reaction.

For copper to be formed out of nickel, the nucleus of nickel has to capture a proton. The fact that this possibly occurs in Rossi’s reactor is why the concept of cold fusion has been mentioned – it would consist of fusion between nuclei of nickel and hydrogen.

A term that many consider to be more accurate, however, is LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

Ny Teknik: For how long has the powder supposedly been used in the process?

Kullander: The powder has reportedly been used for 2.5 months continuously with an output of 10 kW (according to Rossi). It corresponds to a total energy of 18 MWh, with a consumption of up to 100 grams of nickel and two grams of hydrogen. If the production had been done with oil, two tons of oil would have been required.

Ny Teknik: What analyses have you done on the powders?

Kullander: Element analysis and isotopic analysis. At the Ångström Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden, element analysis has been made using X-ray Fluorescence (XRFS). Dr. Erik Lindahl undertook the investigation. At the Biomedical Center in Uppsala, both element analysis and isotope analysis has been done through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Associate Professor Jean Pettersson has made the measurement.

Ny Teknik: What results have you obtained from the analyses?

Kullander: Both measurements show that the pure nickel powder contains mainly nickel, and the used powder is different in that several elements are present, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron. The isotopic analysis through ICP-MS doesn’t show any deviation from the natural isotopic composition of nickel and copper.

Ny Teknik: How do you interpret the results?

Kullander: Provided that copper is not one of the additives used as catalyst, the copper isotopes 63 and 65 can only have been formed during the process. Their presence is therefore a proof that nuclear reactions took place in the process. However, it’s remarkable that nickel-58 and hydrogen can form copper-63 (70%) and copper-65 (30%). This means that in the process, the original nickel-58 should have grown by five and seven atomic mass-units, respectively, during the nuclear transmutation. However, there are two stable isotopes of nickel with low concentration, nickel-62 and nickel-64, which could conceivably contribute to copper production. According to Rossi copper is not among the additives. 100 grams of nickel had been used during 2.5 months of continuous heating with 10 kW output power. A straightforward calculation shows that a large proportion of the nickel must have been consumed if it was ‘burned’ in a nuclear process. It’s then somewhat strange that the isotopic composition doesn’t differ from the natural.

Ny Teknik: What further analyses are you planning?

Kullander: We have not planned anything definite. If it’s possible to refine the isotopic measurements, further isotopic measurements would be important mainly to get a better accuracy in the field of 60 to 65 atomic mass units. We have also discussed with Rossi installing an energy catalyzer at a laboratory in Uppsala to perform more detailed measurements. These could be part of a scientific collaboration with the Bologna University.

- - - -

READ MORE: Our complete coverage on Rossi's E-cat can be found here.

Mats Lewan Av: Mats Lewan
Mejla reportern

Ny Tekniks dagliga nyhetsbrev - Teckna nu, kostnadsfritt!


Debattinlägg blir automatiskt tillgängliga för andra användare så snart den som skrivit ett inlägg har publicerat det. Var och en ansvarar själv för innehållet i sina inlägg.

Det går inte längre att kommentera denna artikel.

24 kommentarer Sortera: Äldsta överst

Nu visas kommentar 1-5
Visa fler kommentarer:
Michael Holmudden på Semcom testar sin nya programvara som gör 3d-konstruktioner i en fabriksmiljö mer verkliga. Här är han i Assa OEM:s nya fabrik.

Virtual reality tar plats i industrin

Billig mobilteknik har gjort virtual reality tillgängligt för konsumenterna. Nu är det dags för industrin att haka på. 1 kommentar

Bättre fabriksmiljö med vr

Med vr kan arbetsmiljön testas redan på planeringsstadiet.

Raspberry P1 på en femdollars-sedel

Dator för en femtiolapp från Raspberry Pi

Den populära enkortsdatorn Raspberry Pi har släppts i en ny version den här veckan.

Dells logga på vägg

Dell ber om ursäkt för säkerhetshål

TEKNIKSVEPET. Relativitetsteorin 100 år, Airbus tar loss kabinen och Dell ber om ursäkt. 1 kommentar

Putsfasad läcker 
– efter lagning

Putsfasad läcker – efter lagning

Enstegstätade fasader som reparerats läcker på nytt. 17 kommentarer

Brandövningsplatsen vid flygflottiljen F17 intill Kallinge tros ha orsakat föroreningen av grundvattnet.

Skattebetalarna får stå för kostnaden

Efter Försvarets övningar i Kallinge, nu kommer notan för det förorenade vattnet. 1 kommentar

Försvarets giftnota: Cirka tio miljoner

Kostnaden för förorenade dricksvattnet kan stiga.

Gift hittat i vattentäkter

Naturvårdsverket har analyserat vatten från drygt 180 tilltänkta källor för dricksvatten.

Pilotfabriken för tillverkning av fordonsbränslen i Piteå hotas av nedläggning

Pengarna slut för biofabrik

Samtliga anställda vid LTU Green Fuels i Piteå har varslats. 22 kommentarer

Artikellista - Fordon

Japansk tågjätte storsatsar i Texas

Planerar för snabbtågslinje med Shinkansen. 13 kommentarer


”Elen måste bli dyrare när efterfrågan är störst”


Kapa topparna i elförbrukningen och reformera elcertifikaten. Det måste helt enkelt bli dyrare att använda el när efterfrågan är som störst, skriver Karin Medin på Söderenergi och Gustav Melin, Svebio. 152 kommentarer

Instrumentbrädan på en Tesla och varningstriangel, kollage

Myndighet granskar Teslas nya autopilot

Ny Tekniks provkörning slutade med punktering. Nu ska Transportstyrelsen utreda om bilarna får köras i Sverige. 41 kommentarer

Ny Tekniks Ola Jacobsens slutsats: Använd autopiloten förnuftigt och var alltid redo att ta över ratten. Namnet bedrar.

Punktering för Teslas nya autopilot

NY TEKNIK TESTAR. Vi har testat elbilens nya autopilot. Det höll på att sluta i diket. 93 kommentarer

Arbetare på Volkswagens fabrik visar upp glasögonen.

Smarta glasögon nytt redskap i bilfabriken

Volkswagens fabrik i Wolfsburg först ut. 2 kommentarer

Ifood-bag och Volvo bil som får leverans

Göteborg först ut med nya fryskassen

Volvoägare kan få matvaror levererade till bilen. Kylvaror kommer i nya svenska kassen som fungerar som kyl och frys. 11 kommentarer

Svensk kasse håller mat fryst i ett dygn

Så fungerar den superisolerade matkassen. 67 kommentarer

33-listans logga

Nu kan du söka till 33-listan 2016

33-LISTAN. Dags att söka till listan för hetaste bolagen!

Artikellista - Fordon

Bombarens sista flygtur

Världens sista Avro Vulcan-bombare har landat. 6 kommentarer

Peter Settman

Peter Settman i gigantisk robotaffär

Världens största vapenindustriföretag bildar bolag för industrirobotar med Sollentunaföretag. 11 kommentarer

Stillbild från Under skalet: Robotdammsugare

Vi har öppnat årets julklapp

En robotdammsugare är årets julklapp. Se Under skalet-avsnittet där Ny Teknik plockar den i bitar. 4 kommentarer

Vilken teknik-julklapp vill du ha?

Se resultatet
  • Elbil 51%
  • VR-glasögon 12%
  • Smart klocka 6%
  • Robotdammsugare 11%
  • Annat 21%
Bjässen som ska sanera Fukushima

Bjässen som ska sanera Fukushima

22 tons-dammsugare testas i anläggningen. 38 kommentarer

I en interaktiv webbtjänst kan man studera hur flyktingkatastrofen utvecklats under senare år.

Här är kartan över flyktingkatastrofen

Interaktiv karta visar hur människor flyr.

Efter dieselbluffen – 
vitvaror under lupp

Efter dieselbluffen – vitvaror under lupp

Nu väcks misstankar om vitvarors energimärkning. 50 kommentarer

Kollage med pressbild av ros från Linköpingsuniversitet och foto av den elektorniska rosens stam i närbild.

Forskarna bygger in elektronik i rosen

"Målet är att kunna förädla plantor utan genmodifiering", säger Linköpingsforskaren. 14 kommentarer

Människor i Shanghai fotar med mobiler

10 viktigaste mobiltrenderna

Gartners analytiker om det viktigaste nästa år. 2


Senaste quizen

Alla våra quiz
Karin Bojs, vetenskapsjournalist

Årets fackbok hyllar ingenjörers framsteg

Bok om dna-teknikens framväxt prisas. 1

Så lär du dig sluta prata i tid

Så lär du dig sluta prata i tid

KARRIÄR. Kroppsspråk ger svar. 2

Spelkontroll för mobilen

Spelkontroll för mobilen

Med flera knappar och styrspakar blir mobilspelen roligare. 2

Konflikt mellan två ingenjörer

Lär dig hantera arga personer

”Låt dig inte provoceras”, råder mentala coachen. 2

Yumi har fått sitt första jobb

Yumi har fått sitt första jobb

Snart börjar Yumi på sin första arbetsplats. 1

Superdatorn är ohotad på toppen

Superdatorn är ohotad på toppen

Toppar listan över världens mest kraftfulla datorer. 14

33-listans logga

Nu kan du söka till 33-listan

Bygger ditt företag på en banbrytande innovation? Siktar ni på en internationell marknad? .

Google har blivit smartare

Google har blivit smartare

Googles söktjänst hanterar mer komplexa frågor. 9


Tyskland drar ifrån Sverige i robotligan

Robotiseringen ger ökad produktivitet, visar forskning. 6

Se den dramatiska kometlandningen

Se den dramatiska kometlandningen

Philaes landning på kometen har rekonstruerats. 10

Oculus Rift

Jobba nära fast på distans

AUTOMATION. Augmented reality har nått industrin.

Datorn ser om du är glad

Datorn ser om du är glad

Webbtjänst använder foton för att bedöma känslotillstånd. 3

Plutos mystiska isvulkaner förbryllar forskarna

Plutos mystiska isvulkaner förbryllar forskarna

Dvärgplaneten Pluto fortsätter överraska. 3


Senaste videoklippen

Pingisspelande drönare

Visa alla

Hitta konsulten

Sök bland tusentals konsulter på nya