Tipsa en vän om en artikel

Swedish physicists on the E-cat:
“It’s a nuclear reaction”

In a detailed report, two Swedish physicists exclude chemical reactions as the energy source in the Italian ‘energy catalyzer’. The two physicists recently supervised a new test of the device in Bologna, Italy.

Annons
Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

(Click on the images). Three E-cats without insulation and one insulated. Text in blue indicates hydrogen inlet, main heater, auxiliary heater and water inlet. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

Close view of the main resistor surrounding the copper tube, which in turn surrounds the steel reactor. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

Vertcal part of the E-cat with outlet for hot water through a black rubber hose. The insulation and the lead shielding can also be seen in the picture. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

Swedish physicists on the 
E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

Temperature of the hot water at the outlet. At 60 degrees centigrade the temperature increase is escalated, although the electric power fed to to the device is constant. Foto: Giuseppe Levi

(Swedish version here, Italian translation here).

“In some way a new kind of physics is taking place. It’s enigmatic, but probably no new laws of nature are involved. We believe it is possible to explain the process with known laws of nature,” said Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics and a lecturer at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and chairman member of the board (chairman until April 2) of the Swedish Skeptics Society.

Essén and Professor Emeritus at Uppsala University Sven Kullander, also chairman of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ Energy Committee, both participated on 29 March as observers at a new trial in Bologna of the so-called ‘energy catalyzer’, which could be based on cold fusion, or LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

Participants included the inventor of the device, Andrea Rossi, his scientific advisor Professor Sergio Focardi, and physicists Dr. David Bianchini and Dr. Giuseppe Levi from Bologna University who both supervised the first public demonstration of the E-cat on 14 January 2011 in Bologna, Italy.

The new trial was conducted in much the same way as the trial in January, and lasted for nearly six hours. According to observations by Kullander and Essén, a total energy of about 25 kWh was generated.

In a detailed report (download here), they write:

“Any chemical process should be ruled out for producing 25 kWh from whatever is in a 50 cubic centimeter container. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production.”

The power output was estimated to about 4.4 kW. It’s barely half the power compared with the two previous documented experiments in January and February 2011, because the trial was made with a new and smaller version of the energy catalyzer.

The new trial was the first officially documented with the smaller version which, according to Rossi, is more stable.

“With the smaller version we avoid the power peaks that occurred at ignition and switching off,” Andrea Rossi told Ny Teknik.

He also stated that the smaller version will be used for the planned installation of about one megawatt for the pilot customer Defkalion Green Technologies in Greece.

According to Rossi, a total of 300 reactors connected in series and parallel, will be used in the installation. Originally 100 reactors of the version that delivered 10 kW of power during earlier trials, were supposedly planned for the one-megawatt installation. Rossi still expects the inauguration to take place in October 2011.

At the trial in Bologna, Kullander and Essén could investigate the energy catalyzer with the surrounding insulation and the lead shielding stripped away. The exterior design is described in their report.

The reactor itself, which is loaded with the nickel powder and secret catalysts pressurized with hydrogen, has an estimated volume of 50 cubic centimeters (3.2 cubic inches). The reactor is made of stainless steel.

A copper tube surrounds the steel reactor. The water to be heated flows between the steel and the copper. In operation, the construction is also surrounded by insulation and a lead shielding with a thickness of approximately two centimeters (0.8 inches).

Before starting, Kullander and Essén calibrated the water flow and estimated it at 6.5 kg per hour. The power required to heat the flowing water from 18 degrees and convert it completely into steam was calculated to 4.7 kW.

They also filled the reactor with hydrogen at a pressure of about 25 bars. The reactor was according to Rossi loaded with 50 grams of nickel powder.

As in previous trials the process was ‘ignited’ with an electrical resistance. Input power was 330 watts, of which about 30 watts were required to operate the electronics.

A phenomenon that Kullander and Essén noted was that the curve for the water temperature at the output showed a steady increase up to about 60 degrees centigrade, after which the increase escalated.

“The curve then became steeper, it clearly had a new derivative. At the same time there was no increase in power consumption, it rather decreased when it got warmer,” said Essén.

In their report they note that it took nine minutes to go from 20 to 60 degrees centigrade, which corresponds to the heating from the input electrical power. Going from 60 to 97.5 degrees centigrade, by contrast, just took four minutes.

Throughout the experiment Kullander and Essén had the opportunity to examine the equipment.

“We checked everything that could be checked, and we could walk around freely and have a look at most of the equipment,” said Essén.

“We looked specifically into the big control unit (with electronics) and it contains mostly rectifiers and passive components – there was nothing of interest in it,” said Kullander, which is in line of what Dr. Levi previously noted.

Kullander and Essén had their first contact with Rossi in mid February, at the time of a discussion of the physics in the energy catalyzer, organized by Ny Teknik. After getting answers from Rossi to several questions, they expressed a cautiously optimistic opinion about the technology.

At a first meeting with Rossi at the end of February they were given access to a sample of the pure nickel powder, intended for use in the energy catalyzer, and another sample of nickel powder which, according to Rossi, had been used in the reactor for 2.5 months.

Their analyses showed that the pure powder consists of essentially pure nickel, while the used powder contains several other substances, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron.

“Provided that copper is not one of the additives used as catalyst, the copper isotopes 63 and 65 can only have been formed during the process. Their presence is therefore a proof that nuclear reactions took place in the process,” Kullander said (see further details below).

The meeting in February in turn led to their involvement in the new trial in Bologna.

“My belief that there is an energy development far beyond what one would expect has been strengthened significantly as I have had the opportunity to see the process for myself and perform measurements,” said Kullander.

“Everything that we’ve found so far fits together. There is nothing that seems to be strange. All people seem to be honest and competent,” Essén added.

In line of what they expressed during the discussion in February, they believe that the physics of the energy catalyzer may possibly be explained by a combination of atomic, molecular, nuclear and plasma physics. At the same time they are skeptical of detailed and hypothetical theories suggested at this stage, and stressed instead the need for more data.

They describe that Focardi and Levi have the same approach, and support their viewpoint.

Focardi, who has been working with Rossi during the development of the energy catalyzer, is Emeritus Professor at the University of Bologna, while Levi will now be responsible for researching the energy catalyzer at the Physics Department of Bologna University, commissioned by Rossi, who pays 500,000 Euro according to an agreement between his company Leonardo Corporation and the university.

Kullander and Essén are not involved in this project.

During their visit to Bologna they met with the Rector of the Bologna University, Professor Ivano Dionigi, and had a discussion with him, Rossi, Focardi, Levi and Bianchini on the project. According to Kullander and Levi, future collaborative research is possible.

- - - -

The used powder contains
ten percent copper

Analyses of the nickel powder used in Rossi’s energy catalyzer show that a large amount of copper is formed. Sven Kullander considers this to be evidence of a nuclear reaction.

For copper to be formed out of nickel, the nucleus of nickel has to capture a proton. The fact that this possibly occurs in Rossi’s reactor is why the concept of cold fusion has been mentioned – it would consist of fusion between nuclei of nickel and hydrogen.

A term that many consider to be more accurate, however, is LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction.

Ny Teknik: For how long has the powder supposedly been used in the process?

Kullander: The powder has reportedly been used for 2.5 months continuously with an output of 10 kW (according to Rossi). It corresponds to a total energy of 18 MWh, with a consumption of up to 100 grams of nickel and two grams of hydrogen. If the production had been done with oil, two tons of oil would have been required.

Ny Teknik: What analyses have you done on the powders?

Kullander: Element analysis and isotopic analysis. At the Ångström Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden, element analysis has been made using X-ray Fluorescence (XRFS). Dr. Erik Lindahl undertook the investigation. At the Biomedical Center in Uppsala, both element analysis and isotope analysis has been done through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Associate Professor Jean Pettersson has made the measurement.

Ny Teknik: What results have you obtained from the analyses?

Kullander: Both measurements show that the pure nickel powder contains mainly nickel, and the used powder is different in that several elements are present, mainly 10 percent copper and 11 percent iron. The isotopic analysis through ICP-MS doesn’t show any deviation from the natural isotopic composition of nickel and copper.

Ny Teknik: How do you interpret the results?

Kullander: Provided that copper is not one of the additives used as catalyst, the copper isotopes 63 and 65 can only have been formed during the process. Their presence is therefore a proof that nuclear reactions took place in the process. However, it’s remarkable that nickel-58 and hydrogen can form copper-63 (70%) and copper-65 (30%). This means that in the process, the original nickel-58 should have grown by five and seven atomic mass-units, respectively, during the nuclear transmutation. However, there are two stable isotopes of nickel with low concentration, nickel-62 and nickel-64, which could conceivably contribute to copper production. According to Rossi copper is not among the additives. 100 grams of nickel had been used during 2.5 months of continuous heating with 10 kW output power. A straightforward calculation shows that a large proportion of the nickel must have been consumed if it was ‘burned’ in a nuclear process. It’s then somewhat strange that the isotopic composition doesn’t differ from the natural.

Ny Teknik: What further analyses are you planning?

Kullander: We have not planned anything definite. If it’s possible to refine the isotopic measurements, further isotopic measurements would be important mainly to get a better accuracy in the field of 60 to 65 atomic mass units. We have also discussed with Rossi installing an energy catalyzer at a laboratory in Uppsala to perform more detailed measurements. These could be part of a scientific collaboration with the Bologna University.

- - - -

READ MORE: Our complete coverage on Rossi's E-cat can be found here.

Mats Lewan Av: Mats Lewan
Mejla reportern

Ny Tekniks dagliga nyhetsbrev - Teckna nu, kostnadsfritt!

Kommentarer

Debattinlägg blir automatiskt tillgängliga för andra användare så snart den som skrivit ett inlägg har publicerat det. Var och en ansvarar själv för innehållet i sina inlägg.

Det går inte längre att kommentera denna artikel.

24 kommentarer Sortera: Äldsta överst

5
5
24
Nu visas kommentar 1-5
Visa fler kommentarer:
Startsidan
Ficklampa som 
avslöjar tjuven

Ficklampa som avslöjar tjuven

En oansenlig ficklampa utrustad med gps-sändare ger signal om var en stulen resväska eller bil befinner sig. 17 kommentarer

Yumi

Sju heta industritrender

Höghastighetsinnovation och designade material. Rapport listar heta trender till 2030. 3 kommentarer

Apple

Apple: Vi ersätter ditt sopiga batteri

TEKNIKSVEPET. Här är ett urval av de senaste tekniknyheterna. 17 kommentarer

Utbyggt Heathrow vann flygplatskamp

Utbyggt Heathrow vann flygplatskamp

En tredje startbana blev det vinnande förslaget i en infekterad kamp om Londons framtida storflygplats. 2 kommentarer

Roaming

EU: Då avskaffas roamingavgifter

EU-parlamentet har beslutat om att avskaffa roamingvgifter för mobilanvändning. 27 kommentarer

Svenska huset som
kommer i platta paket

Svenska huset som kommer i platta paket

Ny Teknik har besökt flyktingbostaden som kommer i två platta paket, monteras ihop på fyra timmar och kostar cirka 10 000 kronor. 21 kommentarer

Annons
Saab får kontrakt 
på två nya ubåtar

Saab får kontrakt på två nya ubåtar

Beställningarna har ett totalt värde på 8,6 miljarder kronor. 18 kommentarer

Östersjön, mikroplaster

En plastpartikel per kubikmeter

Nya avslöjande siffror om miljön i Östersjön när ny typ av provtagare fångar in partiklar med en storlek ner till 50 mikrometer. 4 kommentarer

Att ta bilder med drönaren är enkelt. Men det är inte lika enkelt att få in bilderna i redaktionens mac-dator – men en Youtube-sökning senare går det bra.

Sommarens roligaste leksak

Grannens hus räddas från en krock tack vare snabbknappen för landning. Ny Teknik har testat drönaren Parrot Bebop Drone. 14 kommentarer

Drönare

Sköt ned drönare – fälls i domstol

TEKNIKSVEPET. En man tyckte att drönaren flög över hans tomt och sköt ned den. Det gillades inte. Här är ett urval av de senaste tekniknyheterna. 8 kommentarer

Vattenfall testar första ångturbinen med magnetlager

Vattenfall testar första ångturbinen med magnetlager

Vattenfall testar världens första oljefria ångturbin, där turbinaxeln i stället lagras magnetiskt. Med metoden minskar brandrisken. 16 kommentarer

Laservapen ska ge skydd mot drönare

Laservapen ska ge skydd mot drönare

När Japan står som värd för nästa G7-möte i maj nästa år planerar man skaffa tyska laservapen mot drönarattacker. 13 kommentarer

Ger service till vindkraft i hög sjö

Ger service till vindkraft i hög sjö

Två nya servicefartyg ska användas för underhåll av vindkraftparker till havs, även vid våghöjder på 2,5 meter. 14 kommentarer

Byggde vattenmätare 
med en Raspberry Pi
Byggde vattenmätare 
med en Raspberry Pi

Byggde vattenmätare med en Raspberry Pi

Med en enkel webbkamera och en den lilla datorn Raspberry Pi byggde Göran Lundquist en smart och billig vattenmätare. 30 kommentarer

Fri från elnätet – 
med egen vätgas

Fri från elnätet – med egen vätgas

Hans-Olof Nilsson utanför Göteborg har gett sig sjutton på att lyckas leva utan uppkoppling till elnätet. ”I mitten av mars slog jag av strömmen. Det kändes skönt.” 190 kommentarer

Har du ett smart hem? Tävla med oss!

Har du ett smart hem? Tävla med oss!

Har du byggt egna lösningar för det smarta hemmet? Var med i tävlingen ”Sveriges smartaste hem”.

Forskaren Yijun Shi

Rester från biodiesel blir miljövänligt smörjmedel

ALMEDALEN. Forskaren Yijun Shi belönas med årets Framtidspris på 100 000 kronor. 9 kommentarer

TOPP 30 • MEST INSPIRERANDE KVINNLIGA INGENJÖRERNA
De mest inflytelserika 
kvinnliga ingenjörerna

De mest inflytelserika kvinnliga ingenjörerna

TOPP 30. Ny Teknik har rankat 30 inflytelserika inspiratörer bland landets 50 000 kvinnliga ingenjörer.

Ingenjören som 
har koll på hela Volvon

Ingenjören som har koll på hela Volvon

Hon är mest inflytelserik i landet när Ny Teknik listar Topp 30 av landets största inspiratörer.

”Lilla gumman, det där måste man vara smart för”

”Lilla gumman, det där måste man vara smart för”

Som Female Leader Engineer är Katarina Atteryd en förebild för många. Och självklart könsdiskriminerad.

Susanna Baltscheffsky

Kvinnliga ingenjörer gör Tekniksverige bättre

LEDARE. Män, män, män... Överallt bara en massa män. 88 kommentarer

”Oberoendet värt dubbla elpriset”
”Oberoendet värt dubbla elpriset”

”Oberoendet värt dubbla elpriset”

Hur är det med explosionsrisken och vad kostar elen per kWh? Hans-Olof Nilsson, som vill göra sig eloberoende med egen vätgas, svarar på läsarnas frågor. 19 kommentarer

”Imponerande - men dyr lösning”

LÄSARNAS. Ny Tekniks nya tävling, Sveriges smartaste hem, inleddes med berättelsen om Hans-Olof Nilssons off-grid-hus. Huset engagerade läsarna. 53 kommentarer

Fri från elnätet – med egen vätgas

Hans-Olof Nilsson utanför Göteborg har gett sig sjutton på att lyckas leva utan uppkoppling till elnätet. ”I mitten av mars slog jag av strömmen. Det kändes skönt.” 190 kommentarer

Har du ett smart hem?

Har du ett smart hem?

Var med i tävlingen ”Sveriges smartaste hem”.

Här är Kaianders bästa seriestrippar
Här är Kaianders bästa seriestrippar

Här är Kaianders bästa seriestrippar

Du har väl inte missat Ny Tekniks finurlige serietecknare? Här är Kaianders Semplers senaste alster. 1 kommentar

100 tips för bättre feedback

100 tips för bättre feedback

KARRIÄR. ”Undvik förebråelser, de leder ingenstans”, råder experten.

Topplista

Nyamko Sabuni

Så blir ingenjörs- Sverige mer jämställt

ALMEDALEN. Börja med att titta på platsannonserna, råder Nyamko Sabuni på ÅF.

Kostym möblerar om i hjärnan

Kostym möblerar om i hjärnan

KARRIÄR. Kläderna gör individen. Det får oss till och med att tänka annorlunda, visar ny forskning.

Raket exploderade vid uppskjutning – igen

Raket exploderade vid uppskjutning – igen

Tredje gången på åtta månader som en leverans till ISS misslyckats. 1

Då kommer Apple Watch till Sverige

Då kommer Apple Watch till Sverige

Billigaste modellen kostar knappt 4 000 kronor. 11 kommentarer

Trehjulig eldriven Morgan 2016

Trehjulig eldriven Morgan 2016

Anrika brittiska sportbilstillverkaren Morgan planerar eldriven trehjulig sportvagn 2016. 6

Bestämd kvinna

Grabbig it-bransch avskräcker kvinnor

KARRIÄR. Den grabbiga bilden av IT-branschen avskräcker många unga kvinnor, visar studie.

Här är Google-chefens bästa rekryteringstips

Här är Google-chefens bästa rekryteringstips

KARRIÄR. Krossar myten om Googles märkliga rekryteringsmetod.

Sjöstjärna

Kloning ger yngre sjöstjärnor

Sjöstjärnor bör ägna sig åt kloning snarare än sex, visar studie. 3

Japansk sällskapsrobot sålde slut direkt

Japansk sällskapsrobot sålde slut direkt

Skämtar och förstår känslor. 1 000 exemplar slutsålda på en minut.

De vet vad pappersmassa kostar om två år

De vet vad pappersmassa kostar om två år

Tar hjälp av artificiell intelligens för att förutspå priset på pappersmassa. 3

Första kontoret med 1 000 sensorer

Första kontoret med 1 000 sensorer

Smarta kontoret ska spara energi och maxa miljön för de anställda. 10

Värna kreativiteten när piskan viner

Värna kreativiteten när piskan viner

KARRIÄR. Innovationskraften blir ofta lidande när företag effektiviserar. 8

Annons
Annons

Senaste videoklippen

SpaceX falcon 9

Visa alla

Hitta konsulten

Sök bland tusentals konsulter på nya Konsultguiden.se